Editorial Guidelines

This Editorial Style Guide specifies the University of Miami's editorial standards for internal and external communications.

It aims to provide consistency in promotional and informational publications across all constituent groups, and to reflect the character and quality of the University of Miami throughout its range of publications.

A Visual Identity Manual provides a cohesive and consistently applied graphic identity across all campuses and an Expanded Visual Identity for Web and Digital Materials provides essential information for officially-branded Web pages, mobile apps and digital signage.

All are important tools to reinforce our message and advance the University's global presence.

For further information, contact the Division of University Communications at 305-284-5500.

Editorial Style Table of Contents

Abbreviations | Academic Degrees | Addresses | Apostrophe | Business Reply Mail | Capitalization and Titles | Captions and Cutlines | Colon | Comma | Computer Terminology | Courtesy Titles | Gender and Sexuality | Hyphen | Invitations | Italics | Nondiscrimination | Numbers | Period | Physical or Mental Disability | Quotation Marks | Race and Ethnicity | Semicolon | Telephone Numbers

Editorial Style

Most editorial standards for University publications can be found in a few universally accepted references:

  • The editorial reference sources for publications are Merriam Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, Tenth Edition and The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th Edition, published by the University of Chicago Press.
  • The editorial reference for business correspondence, invitations, programs, and other formal communication and protocol is Letitia Baldrige's New Complete Guide to Executive Manners.
  • An editorial reference for computer terminology is Webster's New World Dictionary of Computer Terms, Eighth Edition.
  • An additional helpful reference book is Talking About People: A Guide to Fair and Accurate Language.

University usage that differs from these reference books, additional University references, and answers to frequently asked style questions are presented below. For more detailed information about style and usage pertaining to the School of Medicine, consult the University of Miami School of Medicine Style and Usage Guide.

Abbreviations

In general, abbreviations should be used sparingly or avoided entirely, including the abbreviation UM. Never use U.M., U. of M., UofM, U/M, or U-M. Use University of Miami or University.

Scholarly abbreviations should be used only in footnotes or bibliographies. Abbreviations of parts of a book, article, or series of books should be in lowercase.

Examples:
app., fig., sec., supp., vol.

Abbreviate familiar governmental divisions, agencies, unions, and associations. Use capital letters, omit periods, and do not space between letters.

Examples:
UNESCO, YMCA

Less familiar organizations should be written out and their acronyms put in parentheses in first usage. Only after the first reference should the initials be used alone. Use capital letters, omit periods, and do not space between letters.

Examples:
Cooperative Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Studies (CIMAS)
Organization of American States (OAS)

Use an ampersand (&) only when it is part of the correct corporate or organizational title. Never use an ampersand instead of the word and in text or in lists.

Examples:
Cherry Bekaert & Holland
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology

Abbreviate and lowercase a.m. and p.m. Use periods but no spaces.

Examples:
8 a.m.
10:30 p.m.

Do not abbreviate street, avenue, boulevard, circle, drive, or road in addresses (in text or in return addresses). Spell out North, East, West, and South in addresses. An exception is S.W., N.E., N.W., etc., when used in addresses.

Examples:
South Dixie Highway
1540 Corniche Avenue
113 S.E. Third Street
Turn at the corner of Third Street and S.W. 15th Avenue

Do not abbreviate the names of cities, states, or countries in text and business stationery. An exception is cities that include St. as an abbreviation for Saint. Additionally, when United States is used as an adjective, it may be abbreviated.

Examples:
Miami, Florida 33133
Fort Lauderdale but St. Louis
Florida, North Carolina, Georgia
United States, United Kingdom
Citizen of the United States
United States citizen or U.S. citizen

 Avoid abbreviations that are unclear or awkward.

Examples:
College of Engineering not CoE
College of Arts and Sciences not A&S or CASA
School of Business Administration not SoB

In some instances, years may be abbreviated by the last two digits preceded by an apostrophe (not the opening single quotation mark). Decades should be spelled out and lowercased. The first through tenth centuries should be spelled out and lowercased; others may use numerals.

Examples:
Class of '81 but not Class of '81
the twenties or the 1920s but not the '20s
second century, 18th century

Academic Degrees

Abbreviate and capitalize academic degrees, according to proper editorial style. Use periods and no spaces in abbreviations. Use the degree after the name sparingly, only when it provides more pertinent information or when credentials are necessary.

Examples:
Ann Smith, M.B.A.
John Jones, M.F.A.
Margaret Stein, Ph.D.
Mark Thalen, M.D.
Maria Rodriguez, J.D., LL.M.

When the degree and the graduation year are used together, offset with commas not parentheses.

Examples:
Ann Smith, M.D. '76, was the guest lecturer at the conference.

 Use capitals for the degree title but not for the subject; an exception is when the subject is part of the formal degree title.

Examples:
Bachelor of Science in physics
Master of Professional Accounting

Doctor of Arts in international affairs
Bachelor of Fine Arts in painting
Executive Master of Business Administration
Bachelor of Music
Juris Doctor

No capitals are used when academic degrees are referred to in general terms such as doctorate, bachelor's degree, or master's degree.

Examples:
Gina received her bachelor's degree in 1977.
Getting one's doctorate is hard work.
Paolo has earned bachelor's and master's degrees in art.

Note: The University of Miami awards the A.B. degree, not the B.A.

 Addresses

This style and sequence should be used for addresses:

Examples:
Name of Addressee
Title
Division or Department
College or School
University of Miami
Box Number
Coral Gables, Florida Zip Code

Each department has been assigned a locator code by the University. For all internal correspondence, the locator code should be used. A department's locator code also should be included as the last four digits in its nine-digit zip code.

Zip code for the Coral Gables campus: 33124+locator code.
Zip code for the medical campus: 33101+locator code.
Zip code for the Rosenstiel campus: 33149+locator code.

Zip codes used with street addresses for delivery of overnight mail and/or packages are as follows:

Examples:
Coral Gables campus: 33146
Medical campus: 33136
Rosenstiel campus: 33149

(Exceptions to the foregoing apply to business reply mail, which must be prepared according to specifications set by the U.S. Postal Service. See further down for more information.)

Apostrophe

When a proper name is in italic type, its possessive is in Roman type.

Examples:
The Taming of the Shrew's opening performance.
Newsweek's coverage of world events.

 No apostrophe is used with dates or when forming plurals of acronyms.

Examples:
1890s, 1920s, 1990s
FTEs, ABCs, CEUs

Business Reply Mail

Always use all capital letters, no punctuation, and no abbreviations for business reply mail.

Coral Gables campus
(Note the use of Miami in place of Coral Gables.)

Postcards:

UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI
SCHOOL, COLLEGE, OR DEPARTMENT
BOX NUMBER
MIAMI, FLORIDA 33124-9973

Letters (up to two ounces):

UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI
SCHOOL, COLLEGE, OR DEPARTMENT
BOX NUMBER
MIAMI, FLORIDA 33124-9965

Letters (over two ounces):

UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI
SCHOOL, COLLEGE, OR DEPARTMENT
BOX NUMBER
MIAMI, FLORIDA 33124-9972

Medical campus

UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI
SCHOOL, DEPARTMENT, OR HOSPITAL
MIAMI, FLORIDA 33101-9966

Rosenstiel campus

UNIVERSITY OF MIAMI
SCHOOL OR DEPARTMENT
BOX NUMBER
MIAMI, FLORIDA 33149

Capitalization and Titles

Excessive use of capital letters should be avoided. Capitalize an official name but not part of a name.

Examples:
Department of Chemistry but chemistry department
Faculty Senate but the senate
Commencement Committee but the committee
Board of Trustees but the board
Phillip and Patricia Frost School of Music but the school
Department of Medicine but the department
Diabetes Research Institute but the institute

Use capital letters for committee names, organization names, endowed chairs, centers, institutes, etc. Always use the full name on first reference; an official shortened version may be used on second reference.

Examples:
James L. Knight Chair in Communication can be Knight Chair
Lowe Art Museum can be Lowe Museum
James L. Knight International Center can be Knight Center
Bascom Palmer Eye Institute can be Bascom Palmer
The Jerry Herman Ring Theatre and Alvin Sherman Family Stage can be The Jerry Herman Ring Theatre (not Ring Theatre)
Austin Weeks Center for Recording and Performance can be Weeks Center
University of Miami Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center can be UM/Sylvester
Miami Veterans Affairs Medical Center can be Miami VA Medical Center or Miami VA
University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center can be UM/Jackson (not Jackson)

When referring to the University of Miami on second reference, the word University is capitalized even when used alone. Do not capitalize university when referring to universities in general.

Examples:
Mary, a University of Miami graduate, has fond memories of the University.
A private university offers the best education.

Use capital letters for a course of study or subject only when it is used in a department name, with a course number, or when includes a proper noun or adjective. No quotation marks are used for course titles when the number and area of study are given; quotation marks are used for course titles in text.

Examples:
He studies history and English.
Department of History
History 202
English 215, English and American Literature by Women
She is taking "History of Western Civilization."
Irish literature
Irish Literature 201

Use initial capital letters for titles whether standing alone, in quotation marks, or in italics. A, in, of, and other junction words are capitalized only at the beginning or end of a title.

Examples:
Smith presented "An Approach to Urban Revitalization" at the symposium.
The Jerry Herman Ring Theatre will produce Hamlet.

 In general, capitalize a complete sentence or thought following a colon; lowercase a series or phrase.

Examples:
He provided the following directions: Turn right at the corner, then turn left at the light.
The following classes were listed: mathematics, history, music.
The message was clear: You can't go home again.

Use capitals and quotation marks for a title that exists independently.

Examples:
"Neighborhood Planning in Historical Perspective," a conference sponsored by the School of Architecture, was held in Miami, Florida.

 Use capitals for a title preceding a name but not for one following a name.

Examples:
Professor of Internal Medicine Jeanne Feinberg
Julio Vargas, professor of internal medicine
Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson
Luan Huang, vice president for finance

 Use capitals for named professorships and fellowships. Otherwise, scholar and fellow are lowercased.

Examples:
Fulbright-Hays Fellowship or Scholar but a Fulbright scholar
Patricia Roberts Harris Fellowship but a Harris fellow 

Refer to Florida or the state; lowercase state except when used to denote the official governing body.

Examples:
the Florida Legislature
The state of Florida has a mild climate.
The State of Florida will raise sales taxes.
the state's attorney 

Use capital letters and no apostrophe for Continuing Education Units.

Examples:
Continuing Education Units (CEUs)

 Use lowercase for seasons of the year even if linked with a title.

Examples:
fall semester classes
spring semester
fall 1997
I think spring and fall are the best seasons. 

Be formal when referring to named units that are part of the University. Many buildings, laboratories, auditoriums, courtyards, endowed chairs, lecture series, etc., are named for individuals, foundations, or corporations whose contributions helped make them possible. Always use the full name on first reference; an official shortened version may be used only on second reference.

Examples:
James W. McLamore Plaza can be McLamore Plaza
James L. Knight Physics Building can be Knight Physics Building
Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science can be Rosenstiel School
Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center can be UM/Sylvester
Richard A. Hausler Endowed Chair can be Hausler Chair
William L. McKnight Building can be McKnight Building
The Jerry Herman Ring Theatre and Alvin Sherman Family Stage can be The Jerry Herman Ring Theatre
Founders Hall (no apostrophe on Founders)
The Dr. John T. Macdonald Foundation, on first reference. On second reference, the foundation but not the Macdonald Foundation.

The only colleges or schools that have approved shortened versions for second reference are the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science and the Phillip and Patricia Frost School of Music. The correct second references are the Rosenstiel School and the Frost School. Do not use the RSMAS acronym or School of Music.

Examples:
Rosenstiel School not RSMAS
Frost School not School of Music 

The official location of the medical campus is the University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Medical Center. The correct second reference is UM/Jackson. Do not use Jackson.

The approved references for the University's four campuses include:

Coral Gables campus
medical campus
Rosenstiel campus
South campus

Captions and Cutlines

When identifying subjects in photographs, set off directionals with commas. Never use italics.

Examples:
Ann Smith, left, attended the event.

 In captions and cutlines, use a colon at the beginning of a sentence.

Examples:
Overleaf:
Left to right:
Clockwise:

Colon

Do not use a colon before a listing when the lead-in ends with a verb. Use a colon before a listing when its preceding clause or words would constitute a complete sentence without the listing.

Examples:
For further information, contact University Advancement, Newman Alumni Center

 Classes will be in the following subjects:

Examples:
history
English
French

 Use a colon between time, between volume and page reference, and between place of publication and publisher's name.

Examples:
4:40 p.m.
12:280
New York: Harper & Row, 1997

 Comma

Use a comma between the two independent clauses of a compound sentence. A comma precedes the conjunctions and, but, or, nor, for, so, and yet if the second half of the sentence contains its own subject, verb, and object.

Examples:
The Lowe Art Museum is on Stanford Drive, and it contains many interesting examples of Spanish painting.
but
The Rathskeller is on the edge of the lake and is open for the convenience of students.

Use commas in a series of three or more; a comma is placed after the next-to-the-last element in the series.

Examples:
Faculty members represented many disciplines such as geography, political science, law, history, and sociology.

Use commas after introductory elements, interjections, and direct addresses.

Examples:
If the research grant is awarded, we will begin at once.
Oh, I have one more question.
In addition, we will write the article.
John, let me see the letter.

Do not use commas after short, introductory adverbial phrases.

Examples:
Since 1997 I have accrued 30 credits in English.
In May more than 2,500 students graduated from the University.
In 2018 a comet will pass this way again. 

Use a comma between the day and year in dates. Use a comma after the year for dates in sentences.

Examples:
November 7, 1957
She was born November 7, 1957, to a wealthy family in Peru.
In July 1984 I moved to Miami.

When a city and state or city and country are used in text, use a comma between the two and following the state or country.

Examples:
The University was founded in Coral Gables, Florida, in 1926.
The student chose Paris, France, for summer study.

 No commas are used between month and year or between season and year.

Examples:
April 1983 but April 21, 1983
fall 1983

Do not use a comma before Jr. and Sr. when part of an individual's formal name.

Examples:
Michael E. Smith Jr.
Carlos de la Cruz Sr.

Computer Terminology

Use computer terms properly and consistently. Examples of commonly used terms follow. For definitions and more terms, see Webster's New World Dictionary of Computer Terms, Eighth Edition.

Examples:
ASCII
browser
CD-ROM
cyberspace
database
dot-com
download
e-mail
Ethernet
FAQ
FTP
home page
HTML
http
hypertext
hyperlink
HyperText Markup Language
internet (The lowercased word refers to a group of local area networks that have been connected by means of a common communication protocol.)
Internet (The uppercased word refers to the system of linked computer networks, worldwide in scope, that facilitates data communication services.)
LAN
LISTSERV
login
modem
network
offline
on-board
online
search engine
upload
URL
web (The lowercased word refers to a set of related documents that make up a hypertext presentation; it is synonymous with "site.")
Web (The uppercased word refers to the World Wide Web.)
Webmaster
Web page
Web site
World Wide Web

When citing Web addresses in University brochures, it is sufficient to begin with www and to omit http://.

Examples:
www.miami.edu not http://www.miami.edu 

Use the phrase "log on to" (as opposed to "log onto") to direct readers to a Web site.

Examples:
Log on to www.miami.edu to learn more about the University of Miami.

Courtesy Titles

Do not use courtesy titles in publications (brochures, case statements, booklets, directories, etc.).

Examples:
Hernandez not Dr. Hernandez
Ted Guntz not Mr. Ted Guntz
Sharon Parker not Ms. Sharon Parker

The preferred usage in periodicals (magazines, newspapers, and newsletters) is to eliminate courtesy titles in text material in all references. (See exceptions noted below.)

Examples:
James Smith not Dr. James Smith
Pamela Shafer not Ms. Pamela Shafer

In listings, addresses, etc., do not use Mrs. (unless the woman is using her husband's name).

Examples:
Mrs. John Smith or Mary Smith not Mrs. Mary Smith

Dr., Mr., Mrs., or Ms. may be used in first and second references in periodicals if the references serve to avoid confusion. Never use Miss.

Examples:
President and Mrs. Ashe attended the reception. Mrs. Ashe presented an award.

Never use courtesy title and degree together.

Examples:
John Jones, M.D., presented a paper. Jones is a graduate of the University.
not
Dr. John Jones, M.D., presented a paper.

Gender and Sexuality

Broaden Diversity
When showcasing students of every nationality and race, be sure to include students of all sexual orientations and gender identities. Whether it's a photograph or a profile story of an LGBTQ student, being proactive to include this population (assuming the subject of your story/photo is comfortable with being "out") tells audiences that LGBTQ students are supported and thriving on campus. Make sure any leadership talking points about diversity also specifically mention LGBTQ people. Pursue stories about faculty members who are doing LGBTQ-related research.

Abandon the Binary
Don't assume there are only two genders or that family members and relationships are heterosexual. Consider using gender non-specific language like parent/caregiver instead of mom/dad, spouse/partner instead of boyfriend/girlfriend, and chair/chairperson instead of chairman. Some people identify their gender as something other than male or female, so consider using people of all genders instead of men and women. Be sure to ask for the pronouns and terms that are most comfortable for each individual; don't use language based on assumptions or guesses.

Know Your Terms
Gay is used to describe men and women who are attracted to the same sex, though lesbian applies only to women. Bisexual refers to people who are attracted to more than one gender. Always use sexual orientation over sexual preference.

Transgender people have a gender identity that is different from the sex of their birth, regardless of whether or not they have had surgery. Transsexual refers to a person who changes gender through surgery. Be sure to use the person's preferred name and pronoun, and remember that a person's gender identity is independent of their sexual orientation.

Queer is an umbrella term for someone who does not identify with society's normative expectations of gender and/or sexual orientation. The other Q, questioning, refers to people who are in the process of exploring their sexual orientation and/or gender identity.

Alumni Outreach
The UM Office of Alumni Relations is leading an LGBTQ alumni outreach initiative. Contact Kate Lake at klake@miami.edu for more information on how to nurture relationships with LGBTQ alumni.

Become an IBIS Ally
The IBIS Ally Network will train faculty, staff, and students on how to be an effective ally to the LGBTQ community at the University of Miami. Participants who complete the training will receive an IBIS Ally Network logo that they can display in their offices to convey they are allies to students and colleagues of all sexual orientations, gender identities, and gender expressions. For information email ibisally@miami.edu.

 Hyphen

Consult the dictionary to confirm hyphenation. In general, avoid the use of hyphens unless the result is awkward or confusing.

Examples:
coworker, freelance, cooperate, inpatient, statewide, nonresident, noncredit, nonprofit, biweekly, coauthor, postdoctoral, kickoff
but
full-time, part-time

 Consult the dictionary to avoid common spelling errors in compound words.

Examples:
health care not healthcare
workplace not work place

In University usage, the word fundraising does not require a hyphen. Do not use the word fundraiser.

Examples:
The job offers fundraising opportunities.
The dean is good at fundraising. not The dean is a fundraiser. 

Hyphens are used when the base word begins with a capital letter.

Examples:
non-Hispanic
non-American
anti-Semitic 

Never break a hyphenated word in another place.

Examples:
self-knowledge not self-knowl-edge

Do not allow a single letter of a word to stand alone at the beginning or end of a line. Force the entire word to the next line.

Examples:
not E-gyptian
not a-lone

Hyphenate when the meaning varies with the absence of punctuation.

Examples:
re-cover varies from recover
re-create varies from recreate

Use a hyphen for first-professional or when referring to levels of residency or enrollment.

Examples:
first-professional degree
second-year resident
third-year law student

Hyphenate compound adjectives before a noun. Do not hyphenate compound adjectives when the first word ends in ly.

Examples:
He is a first-rate golfer.
her rapidly rising heart rate but not her rapidly-rising heart rate

Invitations

Informal and formal invitation styles may be used, depending on the nature of the event.

Formal:
For occasions such as commencement, the dedication of a building, a presidential reception, and the like, a formal invitation style is in order.

Examples:
Julio Frenk
President of the University of Miami
and
Richard Fain
Chairman of the Board of Trustees
request the pleasure of your company
at a reception
to honor the members of the


Society of University Founders

on
Wednesday, the eighteenth of October
from six-thirty to eight-thirty o'clock

Lowe Art Museum
University of Miami
1301 Stanford Drive
Coral Gables, Florida
R.S.V.P. Card Enclosed
Valet Parking
Map Enclosed

 

 The R.S.V.P. card and other enclosures cite the date, time, and other elements in the same formal style.

For details, consult Letitia Baldrige's New Complete Guide to Executive Manners.

Informal:
Printed invitations for more casual gatherings may follow an informal style.

Examples:
The University of Miami Alumni Association
is proud to present the

Distinguished Alumni Lecture Series

All Things Are Possible...Pass The Word


Barbara Milo Ohrbach
talks about her journey from the boardroom
to the best-seller list
 
Tuesday, December 5, 2000
6 p.m.

The University Club
One West 54th Street
New York, New York

R.S.V.P. card enclosed
Reception following the lecture
Limited seating

 

Again, enclosures are worded similarly to the invitation.

For details, consult Letitia Baldrige's New Complete Guide to Executive Manners. 

Italics

Use italics for titles of plays, television shows, motion pictures, books, journals, magazines, newspapers, newsletters, and long poems published as books. Also use italics for musical works; for titles of operas, oratorios, motets, tone poems, and other long musical compositions; and for works of art. Titles of short works, magazine articles, television episodes, speeches, papers, and unpublished works are in quotation marks.

Examples:
The Cosby Show and Late Night with David Letterman
Hitchcock's The Birds and Kubrick's A Clockwork Orange
Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird and Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea
Journal of Psychology and the New England Journal of Medicine
The Miami Herald and The New York Times
People, TV Guide, Vanity Fair, and Esquire
Professor Jones presented "Our Aging Society" at the convention.
She published "My Life as an Undergraduate" in Glamour magazine.
I watched the rerun of the "End of the Game" episode of Hawaii Five-O

Use italics for the titles of gallery and museum exhibitions.

Examples:
Abstraction and Isolation at the Lowe Art Museum
The National Gallery's Isolation and Abstraction exhibition

Use italics for isolated words and phrases in a foreign language if they are likely to be unfamiliar to readers.

Examples:
Many ostraka were dug up during excavation. 

Use italics to refer to words as words and to single out terms as terms.

Examples:
The word cacophony
The term gothic

Italics are not necessary for familiar foreign words.

Examples:
a priori, mea culpa, in vitro, in vivo, ad hoc, cum laude

Do not italicize conjunctions or other words separating titles in sentences.

Examples:
I read Ann Tyler's Breathing Lessons and The Accidental Tourist.

Be sure to cite the proper name of a publication.

Examples:
The Miami Herald
Milwaukee Journal Sentinel
Miami Daily Business Review
The Washington Post 

Nondiscrimination

The University of Miami's publications should stand up to scrutiny from the perspective of women, minorities, individuals with physical or mental disabilities, veterans, or any other person whose employment rights are guaranteed by the law. Equal respect and a balanced representation should be given in visual media to gender, race, ethnic group, age, sexual orientation, and ability.

All promotional materials distributed to individuals outside the University community must contain a statement reflecting the University's policy on Affirmative Action: "An Equal Opportunity/Affirmative Action Employer."

 Numbers

Spell out numbers one through ten except in statistical matter. Use figures for 11 and above. This also applies to adjectival numbers.

Examples:
ninth
11th
The first three parking lots will provide spaces for 540 cars.
The new house is 80 percent finished; the interest rate is 9.25 percent.

If used at the beginning of a sentence, all numbers are spelled out.

Examples:
Thirty-five people attended the seminar.
Fifty percent of the respondents voted in favor of the measure.
Nineteen eighty-four was a very good year. 

Do not abbreviate years in the 21st century. The exception is class year designations.

Examples:
1999-2000 not 1999-00
The new program will commence in fall of 2019.
A reception for the class of '18 will be held immediately after commencement. 

Use numbers for parts of a book.

Examples:
For further data refer to figure 9 and table 2 on page 8.

With o'clock, spell out the time of day in text material, but use numbers with a.m. or p.m. Periods are used in a.m. and p.m. Avoid redundancy.

Examples:
The meeting is at nine o'clock in the evening.
The meeting is at 9 p.m.
12 p.m. or noon but not 12 noon
8 p.m. but not 8 p.m. in the evening 

When making a reference to time, do not use zeros for the hour in text. An exception may be made when times are used in tabulation.

Examples:
The bus stops here between 3 and 3:30 p.m.
Buses stop running at 9 p.m. 

Spell out decades.

Examples:
the thirties or the 1930s but not the '30s

Use figures to precede academic credits in catalog course descriptions.

Examples:
Beginning French 101
Lecture and Laboratory: 60 hours, 4 credits

Use figures to precede academic credits in text.

Examples:
The course counts as 3 credits in the humanities.

Use figures for phone numbers. Area code is separated by a hyphen, not by parentheses.

Examples:
305-284-5600
800-555-1212 

In citing percentages or millions of dollars, use the figure followed by percent or million spelled out. Remember that percentage is the word to use when no figure is cited. Additionally, do not split the numeral from percent or million on a line or page.

Examples:
4 percent
$4 million but two million volumes and 54 million people
Ashley owns 7 percent of the farm; however, Victor owns a larger percentage.

 Use of the phrase "No. 1" is acceptable to denote ranking.

Examples:
The Miami Hurricanes football team again was ranked No. 1 during the preseason. 

Period

Always use the period inside quotation marks. Use the period inside parentheses or brackets when the matter enclosed is an independent sentence forming no part of the preceding sentence; otherwise, the period goes outside.

Examples:
Philip said, "Go inside, now."
There was no reaction. (The woman could barely hear.)
Buy a vehicle (car, truck, or boat).

Use periods after abbreviated degrees.

Examples:
B.S., Ph.D., M.Ed.

Do not use periods after acronyms or broadcasting stations.

Examples:
NAACP, AFL-CIO, NASA
WLRN-FM, WWBT-TV, WCYB

Physical or Mental Disability

Separate the person from the disability and recognize that persons with disabilities have rights, among them the right to privacy.

Treat persons with disabilities with respect in publications, and avoid stereotyping persons by occupation or attribute.

Quotation Marks

Use quotation marks for short musical works, poems not published as a separate book, unpublished works, titles of theses, and titles of papers.

Examples:
"The Road Not Taken"
"Moon River"

 No quotation marks are used when course titles are used as headings or in an announcement of an event.

Examples:
Fundamentals of Finance 

Race and Ethnicity

Be aware of and avoid words, images, and situations that suggest that all or most members of a racial or ethnic group are the same.

Avoid using qualifiers that reinforce racial and ethnic stereotypes. Avoid using ethnic clichés.

Be aware of possible negative implications of color-symbolic words. Choose language and usage that do not offend people or reinforce bias.

Be aware of language that, to some, has questionable racial or ethnic connotations. Avoid patronizing and tokenism with regard to any racial or ethnic group.

Review visual and written material to see if all groups are fairly represented. 

Semicolon

Use a semicolon in listings of phrases that contain commas.

Examples:
The library contains an extensive microfilm and microfiche collection; an audiovisual department; facilities for online research, photocopying, and studying; and archives and special collections.

Use a semicolon in joining main clauses not joined by a coordinating conjunction.

Examples:
The new house is almost complete; the interest rate is 9.25 percent.

Telephone Numbers

Use the figures only, without the word telephone preceding them. Area code is not enclosed in parentheses but is followed by a hyphen.

305-284-3082

An exception to the previous rule is when both the telephone number and the fax number are given. Use the following format for such instances.

Telephone: 305-284-3082
Fax: 305-284-2035

In all internal communications use the entire seven digits of the phone number. Do not use the word extension or the abbreviation ext. in telephone references. In external communications always include the area code. 

Visual Style

FOR THE VISUAL STYLE GUIDE VISIT: http://www.miami.edu/umidentity

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